At Church With Doug Giles

When I wrote my investigation into Doug Giles’s background a few days ago, his Clash Church website was down. Now it’s back up: a surprisingly grimy and low-key affair. According to its intro:


I’m sure Doug’s fellow pundits at Townhall will be pleased to hear Doug has infiltrated their crap. Or does he mean something else? As part of the church description, we read:

We envisage a worship center filled with hundreds of loving, cool and righteous people of all ages, races and economic strata.

Cool? As in: “Thou shalt be cool?” Eh?

For men, we embrace a masculine spirituality. We believe God created men to be men without apology. We believe that Biblical masculinity is necessary for the church to be the overcoming organism God intends for it to be. Therefore we avoid the feminization of men and the spiritual emasculation of God’s rowdy warriors that usually accompanies most evangelical churches.

You hear that, Christianity Today?

…We don’t mind getting our hands dirty doing God’s work of restoring our neighborhoods, cities and nations. We believe our labours will positively impact our culture for hundreds of years…We have big dreams.

We are Clash Christian Church.

That’s the word from the hood of the Adventura Residence Inn, where the church meets at 10:30 each Sunday (According to Marriot, the hotel is “Nestled in one of the most upscale areas in Miami”). Just to labour the point that he really is not gay, honest, the dear leader’s profile adds:

As far as other obsessions are concerned, Doug is into big game hunting and monster shark fishing, oil painting, mountain biking and a bunch of other things which incorporate running, screaming, yelling, and potentially breaking bones with his family and friends.

Say, just the kind of guy who could serve as an army chaplain in Iraq or Afghanistan, perhaps?

But this is the bit that really interests me:

Doug and his Church are overseen by local, national and international leaders within the greater body of Christ.

Yes, yes, but who? What’s with the anonymity? Does he mean His People and Morning Star International under Rice Broocks, or someone else? Why the secrecy? But here’s an unexpected clue: the statement of faith has been lifted wholesale (unattributed) from the Evangelical Presbyterian Church, a (rather dull) Missouri-based Reformed denomination that split from the United Presbyterian Church in the U.S.A in 1981 (the EPC allows women’s ordination and is more tolerant of charismatic practices than most Presbyterian churches. It also actually rejects reconstructionism). However, Giles’s church is not listed on the EPC website [UPDATE July 2005: More information about these leaders is now available. See my entry here, scroll down].

The Thoughts of Chairman Giles are also available for purchase, including a range of multi-CD sermons, some of which are “powerful and funky”. There is also a “Clash 4 kids” “youth mentoring program which pairs Christian adults with at risk kids ages 8-16”. Ahh, faith-based social work…

29 Responses

  1. […] UPDATE (30 October): The Clash Christian Church website is now back up, and I have investigated it here. […]

  2. Your research seems very in depth and complete. One question that came to mind while absorbing all this was, with Pastor Gile’s church, radio show and web pubications at – how many people does he reach? I admit I haven’t gone to his website to ask the same question – figuring I’d receive a less-than objective answer.


  3. Hey Bart! Seems like this is “in-depth and complete research” is a bit of selective de-constructivism (what happened to reconstuctionism). Not difficult to do if you want to take the piss! You should keep your day job:
    You hear that, Christianity Today? You’re a bunch of poofs! …We don’t mind getting our hands dirty doing God’s work of restoring our neighborhoods, cities and nations. We believe our labours will positively impact our culture for hundreds of years…We have big dreams. We are Clash Christian Church.

    Really Reads: Lastly, we believe in the centrality of the Christian worldview to all aspects of life: politics, education, business and the arts. We don’t mind getting our hands dirty doing God’s work of restoring our neighborhoods, cities and nations. We believe our labors will positively impact our culture for hundreds of years. We have confidence in the triumph of the cross and the resurrection of Christ. We have big dreams.

    Another instance: Doug and his Church are overseen by local, national and international leaders within the greater body of Christ. Yes, yes, but who? What’s with the anonymity? The website reads: An advisory counsel comprised of both national and international leaders from various churches oversees Pastor Giles’ life, pastoral duties and doctrine. They are:

    David Fredriksz, The Eagle’s Nest Church, Ede, Holland Joe Rodriguez, The Mobile Christian Center, Mobile, Alabama Glenn Robertson, Kaleidoscope Church, Cape Town, South Africa Jeff McCreight, New Life Family Center, Lubbock, Texas

    Either your info is stale or you wasting our time with the half bake research. I’ll hit your site for more spoofs later!

    • Curious…Doug’s site lists these guys as people he is accountable to….how many times have any of these guys ever come to Miami and spent time with Doug or his church? Because I was with Doug his first 3 years in Miami (1996-1999)….and I heard all these same names and never ONCE saw any of these guys.

  4. Either your info is stale

    Of course this article is a bit “stale” – it’s over a year old, since when Giles has overhauled his site. If you noted my “UPDATE July 2005” section you’ll see I’m keeping up to date.

    I’ll hit your site for more spoofs later!

    ohh, scary…

  5. Interesting. So, because they meet at a hotel in Aventura–an upscale neighborhood–then they’re all rich or something?

    Note: The church rents space in the hotel. Doesn’t own it. I live five minutes from the hotel, and I live in a multicultural neighborhood (native-born blacks, Indian and Bangladeshi, Caribbean and Latino immigrants, Russian immigrants, and a notable Orthodox/Chassidim community. I’m Cuban-American.) This is a rental and residential home community, hardly upscale. But it abuts Aventura. Hallandale and Hollywood and North Miami, also full of working and immigrant folks (many Haitian immigrants, I might add)class folks who struggle, are within a ten minute drive of Aventura.

    I’ve visited Clash Church half a dozen times. It’s non-fussy and folks mostly wear jeans to church. While they don’t have a building of their own, they donated half of their building fund to Katrina relief. And the church is mixed in color, age, economic class, if not necessarily creed.

    So much for your “rich by association” bit… If they were loaded, I’m guessing they’d have their own church building/school/etc. Hm.


  6. I see that Doug’s thrown in the towel on starting a church in Miami and moved to TX…

  7. I see Doug has shut his church down and moved back to Texas…so much for his big vision in Miami (almost 20 years and NOTHING accomplished)….

    • What were you expecting to be accomplished? And what have you accomplished for the Lord’s glory in the last 20 years? If you are expecting proof of God’s work, something that smacks folks in the face, then you’re god is not the same as mine. Perhaps there are reasons why “NOTHING” was accomplished that you are not privy to. When you were “with Doug” for those 3 years, did you follow him everywhere to know who he had breakfast, lunch or dinner with? Did you know his every daily move to know who he talked with? Were you privy to all his phone calls and emails? Did you travel with him to know who he met with on those trips? You sound more like someone who has an axe to grind, rather than an objective critic. Perhaps Doug Giles is not for you, but he obviously is for some others. I’m just beginning to learn about Doug Giles, but your opinions have no sway over me because you’re biased. Be objective or be silent.

      • Good for you….ignorance is bliss

      • FYI…..since Doug was the one popping his mouth off about his “big” vision and his “big” destiny and all the “big” things he was going to do for God….i.e. saying things like “I’m believing God for 2 million souls” (he said that in the fall of 1995) …”I’m believing God to have 6 campus ministries in 3 years with at least 100 college students saved in each one” (he said that in the spring of 1996)…. (3 years later he had 0 campus ministries with 0 students saved)….saying things like “Even if I fail, I am going to have an 800 member church because even the losers have 800 member churches” (he said that in the summer of 1995)….(20 years later he might have had a dozen people)…(I have recordings of Doug saying these things if you want to post your mailing address) and on top of that …mocking and belittling other Christian ministries (calling them “wussy” Christians) and slandering and ostracizing people who got tired of his nonsense and left his church….and then pulling his pants down and crapping all over people who served him faithfully for years (because all he ever cared about was his #s and his tithes)…then yes…maybe this guy is the “model” of ministry humility and integrity

      • Another thing this jacka## did that I find really ironic. In May 1998, there was a guy in his church named Jim (a guy who served him faithfully for 7+ years…did everything Doug asked him to do, was a leader/elder/cell group leader in the church, was a worship leader, let Doug use his house for meetings, services, prayer meetings, tithed faithfully every week)…he and his wife of 4 years got pregnant with their first child and Doug called them a couple of “fu##ing dumba**es” for getting pregnant (what a great human being!!!)…Doug was pissed because he knew they may leave his church (since it was going nowhere…the church was meeting in his apartment after 3 years) and they were his #1 “tithers”. This guy left and joined the military…Doug very smugly told him and his wife “oh well…if a war breaks out in Middle East I guess God will give you the grace to get though it since God called you” (Like it would be a fitting punishment to the guy for leaving the church (i.e. like it would be God’s judgment.))
        Ironically this guy did serve honorably in Iraq and in the military for years. And I know for a fact, that Doug has NEVER ONCE reached out to this guy and his family and apologized to him for the way he treated them.
        Yet…now he tries to pretend to be “Mr. “I love out troops”, “I support out troops”, “I love America”…and on his FB page his wife calls him a “great” Patriot.
        I would be very cautious about buying into Doug’s Pro America, pro-military talk. If you look on his website ( (about Doug Giles) you will see: “Doug’s speaking fee is $5000 plus air fare plus a nice hotel room plus food allowance”. Every You Tube video you see of him, he always tried to pitch his books and his hunting videos.
        His whole Clash talk show was just a way of him to be able to make a living without having to get a real job especially since he was a total failure as a pastor.
        The man is a merchant who just uses people and then spews them out once he is through with them.

      • Went to H.S. with this jackass in Lubbock, Tx.(Coronado HS) He’s a schister (sp) Was a dope smoking, get high party drunk, skirt chasing man whore in H.S. Always trying to screw everyones girlfriend. He was full of himself (full of shit) back then like he is today. Arrogant POS always liked to hear himself talk. I wouldn’t believe a thing out of this swindlers mouth.

      • This Jim is my father. Doug Giles convinced him to leave my mother (his wife at the time) and me and my sister to move to Texas and follow him. Not to mention then the horrible way he treated my father and stepmother he is a conman.

      • I just did more nothing for the Lord’s glory the other night…and I didn’t charge $5,000 to do it either….like this guy

        Better yet…why don’t you call your pastor…ask him if he’s like throw some of his church’s$ away on this guy….

      • @ Turner…I hear you man.

        Just a pathetic excuse of a human being.

        In Miami, he even made his own wife get a job to pay the bills so he didn’t have to work because he had the “call of an apostle” meaning he could lounge around Aventura bookstores and read books all day. Checked everyone’s tithing records.
        No work ethic whatsoever.
        Sadly, he took some of those behaviors you describe into the ministry….hurt a lot of people.
        Frankly, I got sick and tired of seeing so many people get hurt by this guy.

      • @Nique….have you started to find out more about Doug Giles yet? Because everything you’ve read below is spot on…esp. the mocking his church members for their military service and now trying to pass himself as “a great patriot” and making his wife pay his bills while he lounged around Borders and Barnes and Nobles cafes reading books all day ….and the flying the hairdresser to Florida from Texas to get a haircut story is true too

    • Also…maybe you like pastors who spends hundreds of dollars to fly their hairdressers in from Texas to Miami to give them a haircut while preaching gung ho be a warrior for Christ sermons every Sunday….(a guy that is just living off of other Christian’s money)….that’s some wise stewardship

      • a true warrior is know for his talk and not his actions….at least in Doug’s world (and this is Doug’s world….we all just live in it)

  8. 10 signs for spotting a sociopath
    #1) Sociopaths are charming. Sociopaths have high charisma and tend to attract a following just because people want to be around them. They have a “glow” about them that attracts people who typically seek guidance or direction. They often appear to be sexy or have a strong sexual attraction. Not all sexy people are sociopaths, obviously, but watch out for over-the-top sexual appetites and weird fetishes.

    #2) Sociopaths are more spontaneous and intense than other people. They tend to do bizarre, sometimes erratic things that most regular people wouldn’t do. They are unbound by normal social contracts. Their behavior often seems irrational or extremely risky.

    #3) Sociopaths are incapable of feeling shame, guilt or remorse. Their brains simply lack the circuitry to process such emotions. This allows them to betray people, threaten people or harm people without giving it a second thought. They pursue any action that serves their own self interest even if it seriously harms others. This is why you will find many very “successful” sociopaths in high levels of government, in any nation.

    #4) Sociopaths invent outrageous lies about their experiences. They wildly exaggerate things to the point of absurdity, but when they describe it to you in a storytelling format, for some reason it sounds believable at the time.

    #5) Sociopaths seek to dominate others and “win” at all costs. They hate to lose any argument or fight and will viciously defend their web of lies, even to the point of logical absurdity.

    #6) Sociopaths tend to be highly intelligent, but they use their brainpower to deceive others rather than empower them. Their high IQs often makes them dangerous. This is why many of the best-known serial killers who successfully evaded law enforcement were sociopaths.

    #7) Sociopaths are incapable of love and are entirely self-serving. They may feign love or compassion in order to get what they want, but they don’t actually FEEL love in the way that you or I do.

    #8) Sociopaths speak poetically. They are master wordsmiths, able to deliver a running “stream of consciousness” monologue that is both intriguing and hypnotic. They are expert storytellers and even poets. As a great example of this in action, watch this interview of Charles Manson on YouTube.

    #9) Sociopaths never apologize. They are never wrong. They never feel guilt. They can never apologize. Even if shown proof that they were wrong, they will refuse to apologize and instead go on the attack.

    #10) Sociopaths are delusional and literally believe that what they say becomes truth merely because they say it! Charles Manson, the sociopathic murderer, is famous for saying, “I’ve never killed anyone! I don’t need to kill anyone! I THINK it! I have it HERE! (Pointing to his temple.) I don’t need to live in this physical realm

  9. Unless…maybe you like “pastors” who are self-promoting hot air balloon windbags that only care about themselves…that talk a big game and do absolutely nothing for anyone….spiritual armchair and keyboard warriors…if that is the case…this guy is for you….

  10. FYI…Douglas is his middle name…his real first name is Leslie

  11. DOUG GILES IS A WARRIOR!!!! He trained in Tae Kwon Doe for 2 years in Lubbock before moving to Miami…I learned my fetal fighting techniques from Doug and I used those when I fought in UFC 2 in 1994.
    I’ve also developed my own product line of fetal fighting products that has made me a wealthy man…..Thanks Doug !!!!

    Fetal Fighting Products
    Volume 1 “Fetal Basics”
    (Note all tapes are approx. 1hr. long due to the fact that GM Ettish had to be constantly revived during production)
    In this ten tape volume GM Ettish will show you the in’s and out’s of this lethal style.
    Tape one:
    Obtaining the fetal postion. Ettish goes over everything from
    dropping right in to the fetal position to taking punch to the
    face and falling semi-unconcious into the fetal position.
    Vol1fb Tape 1 $45.00
    Tape two:
    Defending the fetal postion. Once you have gotten the fetal
    position you must learn to properly defend it
    Vol1fb Tape 2 $45.00
    Tape three thru six:
    Passing the fetal postion. A position as dangerous as the fetal
    position has to be dealt with very carefully. Ettish has found it
    necessary to produce three separate tapes dedicated to dealing
    with passing your opponents fetal position safely
    Vol1fb Tapes 3-6 $75.00
    Tape seven:
    Takedowns and the clinch. No opponent in his right mind is
    going to let you just have the fetal position. Most of the time
    you will have to struggle for it. The Grandmaster will show you
    mysterious throws and thought provoking take-downs that in
    some circles are thought to have been the ancient seed that has
    grown to be freestyle wrestling.
    Vol1fbTape 7 $45.00
    Tape eight:
    Fight psychology In this tape you will learn the techniques that
    other instructors wont teach or don’t even know. Such as how
    to make your opponent fell sory for you and guilty for hurting you.
    Vol1fbTape 8 $45.00
    Tape nine:
    Fake outs and reversals In this tape you will learn such groundbeaking
    manuvers such as the fake-out leg kick from ten feet away. Also you will
    learn such awsome fight stoppers such as yelling “I HAVE A GUN!!”
    and how to call the police from anywhere in the USA.
    Vol1fbTape 9 $45.00
    Tape ten:
    First aid and CPR In most fights that involve fetal fighters (even sparring)
    there will be blood, and people getting knocked out. This tape will teach
    you how to stop the bleeding, because sometimes wiping the blood on the
    mat just doesn’t do the job. It also teaches you to revive your sparring partner
    from unconciousness because time spent knocked out is time you could be
    Vol1fbTape 10 $45.00
    ***As an added bonus buy all ten and recieve Street Fetal Fighting free!!!***
    Street Fetal Fighting
    Here you will learn the the Fetal techniques that are efective on the street
    and the differences between Sport Fetal Fighting and reality Fetal Fighting.
    STFF $45.00
    Ettish in Action
    This tape is NOT for the weak of heart. This is a bold venture into the gritty
    world of no holds barred fighting, street fights, riots, and just about anywhere
    else grandmaster Ettish has decided to test his skills. See Ettish defeat some of
    the most skillful S.A.F.T.A. and A.S.A.X fighters the world has ever seen!
    See Ettish use his deadly fetal position against multiple attackers in the infamous
    Los Angeles riots! This a must have!
    EIA1 $45.00
    Coming soon
    Ettish In Action 2
    Advanced Fetal Fighting (Yellow to Black)
    35 tape series from Panther Video
    Disabling any adversary from the fetal position By Grandmaster Frederick P. Ettish (147p $19.00)
    Most people think of the fetal position as being in a dis-advantage, in this book
    Grandmaster Ettish teaches you that when you are in the fetal position the fight
    is far from over, in fact it has only just begun.
    He will go over in great detail the following:
    1) The ancient origins of fetal position fighting
    2) The importance of the raised single fist defense.
    3) How to feint your opponent with early leg kicks (even when your opponent is not in striking range.)
    4) How to trick your opponent into over confidence by getting yourself beaten up, choked, and tapped
    out, so you can unleash one of the many deadly fetal submissions.
    There is also a whole chapter dedicated to teaching you the do’s and donts’ of “passing” the fetal position.
    This book is a valuable tool for the beginner to the advanced fetal practitioner.
    Fetal techniques also will compliment any form of martial arts.
    Ettish (147p $19.00) Stock#223321

    • I concur…Doug Giles is the ultimate warrior!!! And I know something about what it means to be a warrior!!!

      I fought Mark Kerr in UFC 15. Before my fight I said that I was going to show the world what “real” fighting is!

      I proceeded to get my face rearranged and was knocked out in less than 20 seconds. Now you might think that I was embarrassed….embarrassed that I talked a big game and then wasn’t able to back it up….well…the one lesson that I learned from Doug Giles is this: that a warrior is known for his talk and not his actions!

      It’s more important what you say and what comes out of your mouth than what you produce!

      A true warrior is known for his talk and not his actions!

      Just like Doug mouthed off to the whole world when he moved to Miami (in 1996) that in 20 years he would be having church services in the Miami Arena where the Miami Heat play (today it’s the American Airlines Arena) and said that someday he would have a “Jimmy Swaggart” ministry and that his church would single handedly drive crime rates down, bring revival to South Florida, and send missionaries all over the world and that he had the “call” of an apostle (meaning that he could just lounge around Aventura and read books all day so he could “devote himself to the Word and to prayer” like all “apostles” do (Acts 6:4)) while people in his church would work 60 to 70 hours a week so he could live off their tithes.

      Just like Doug said that he would never leave Miami (that Miami would be the last place he ever lived)…and then Doug mocked and slandered and belittled all the Christians that left his ministry because they got tired of his tyrannical behaviors….called them all “wimps”, “losers”, “quitters”, “covenant breakers”…..”You gave me your word…I guess your word is no good”…..”you’re going to regret leaving”…

      I bet Doug feels very proud of himself today….he really showed those people

      It’s exciting that Doug found his calling and success as an internet keyboard warrior

      Thanks Doug!!! You are an inspiration to me!!

  12. My husband and I were members of his church in Aventura about a decade ago. This man is charming and talks a good talk but at his core he is poison. Looking back I think he must have some type of mental illness. I’m glad he’s not in my city anymore. I feel sorry for him, his wife (who was a sweetheart), and his kids. I hope they all get professional help one day.

    • I was in this idiot’s church in the late 90’s and I agree wholeheartedly….he’s very charismatic, charming, and can preach good messages, but at the end of the day…he just a self-obsessed narcissist..

      I also think he has some type of mental illness. I can think of several occasions (at least a half dozen), where this guy would praise people (FROM THE PULPIT!!!)…and then 6 months to a year later whenever that person ended up in his dog house or left his church…he would turn around and mock them for the very same actions that he used to praise them for! A “pastor”…PRAISING AND THEN MOCKING PEOPLE FOR THE SAME ACTIONS!!! Double-mindedness (James 1:6)

      Example: I knew a guy who for 7 years got to the church early to set up for the service and leave late to tear down the set up….Doug praised him for his servant heart. Then when the guy left, Doug called him a di##head who was just a dummy who set up chairs and probably wasn’t even saved. Another couple (the guy who became an Iraq war veteran) started a ministry in coffee houses in Aventura and people started to visit the church. Doug was like “it’s awesome how much fruit this is bringing!” 6 months later, the couple left and Doug said “all you did was your stupid coffee house ministry and brought a bunch of weirdos to our church.” Another girl started a ministry to a large family of young kids, baptized several of them. Doug was like “this is amazing!” A year later he made fun of her for wasting a year chasing a bunch of dumb kids around.

      One time he threw an 18 year old kid who had been saved for 6 months (a former drug dealer who was ministered to by one his church members at the Broward Juvenile Detention Center) for slouching on the back row one Sunday.

      What a jackass. That shows me that’s he’s clearly got some type of bipolar or schizophrenic illness.

      Also, he has this ridiculous obsession with projecting his “macho” image. I can’t help but sometimes wonder if Doug was just born with a really tiny penis and has a complex because of it.

    • FYI…regarding the mental illness he has. This guy has all the qualities of a narcissistic personality disorder.

      See below:

      Psychological Symptoms

      While narcissism may cover for deeper feelings of inferiority or inadequacy, at a psychological level people with NPD are entirely sincere in their self-devotion and utterly convinced of their own greatness.
      As a reflection of these conscious beliefs, the psychological symptoms of NPD include:

      • Exaggerated feelings of self-importance
      • A sense of entitlement, disconnected from any actual deeds
      • Feeling superior to other people
      • Preoccupation with fantasies of wealth, power, fame, and public praise
      • Prioritizing competition over cooperation
      • Cynical attitudes toward those who act unselfishly or express idealistic beliefs
      • A lack of empathy and understanding of others’ motives
      • Inability to see their own flaws or admit when they are wrong
      • A belief that their interests are more important than the interests of other people
      • A habit of dividing the world into winners and losers
      People with untreated NPD do not like to have their beliefs challenged or questioned, and anyone who does so will be viewed with suspicion and hostility.

      Emotional Symptoms

      Despite their conscious feelings of superiority, people with NPD have many insecurities and are plagued by fears of failure. Their wounded self-esteem becomes visible through their emotional reactions to outside events, which contradict their supposedly unlimited self-confidence.

      The emotional symptoms of NPD include:

      • A need for constant attention and flattery
      • Frequent feelings of envy and resentment
      • Impatience and a quick temper
      • Extreme sensitivity to criticism
      • Inability to adapt to change without feeling rage or frustration
      • Unacknowledged feelings of insecurity, shame, vulnerability
      • Moodiness, often accompanied by signs of depression
      • Deep fear of being helpless or powerless
      • An obsessive desire for revenge against anyone perceived as an enemy

      The people who draw the ire of narcissists usually haven’t done anything to intentionally hurt them. But their actions and achievements somehow remind the person with NPD of their limitations, weaknesses, or failures.
      Their “crime” is shattering the illusions of the NPD sufferer, causing them emotional pain and provoking the urge to lash out or make harsh judgments.

      Behavioral Symptoms

      People with narcissistic personality disorder can be charismatic and charming one moment, and angry and vindictive the next. Their behavior makes a strong impression—sometimes positive and sometimes negative—on everyone they know and meet. They tend to be involved in many conflicts, and predictably they blame those conflicts and the ill will and bad actions of the other party.
      In their social interactions, people with narcissistic personality disorder will:
      • Brag and boast (and sometimes lie) about their accomplishments
      • Go out of their way to avoid associating with anyone they consider beneath them
      • Dominate conversations by interrupting constantly and refusing to let others choose the topics for discussion
      • Insult or demean other people as a way to make themselves look better
      • Flatter those who flatter them, and criticize or denigrate those who criticize them
      • React with indignation and offense when humorous remarks are directed their way, or if they are the subject of teasing
      People with NPD believe they deserve the best of everything, and they will often live beyond their means in their attempt to get it. They are not above taking shortcuts if they can benefit in some way from doing so, but they will be the first to direct their outrage at others who do the same.
      NPD sufferers are sometimes accused of being bad people, but they simply lack the capacity to evaluate themselves and their own behavior honestly and objectively. In many instances, they are genuinely surprised to discover their behavior has offended others

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.